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Pregnancy & Cats
by Dr. Karen Halligan
Separating Fact from Fiction: Must Kitty really be kicked out if you’re pregnant?
The Old Wives’ Tale
The old wives’ tale that once a woman is pregnant she must banish all cats from her household is simply not true. The basis of this myth comes from the fact that cats can carry a parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii and, in turn, infect an unborn fetus in an expecting mother. Pregnant women are at risk for infecting their unborn baby only if they touch infected fecal matter and then somehow ingest it. THIS IS VERY RARE. Millions of woman have healthy babies and as long as preventative measures are taken such as washing your hands after scooping the litter box, this parasite does not pose a significant risk to mothers.
Understanding This Parasite
Cats develop Toxoplasmosis by ingesting the muscle tissue of prey or meat contaminated with the Toxoplasma cysts. Most animals and humans show no signs of infection. The cat is the only animal in which the Toxoplasma gondii parasite can complete its entire life cycle, and unborn kittens and immunosuppressed cats are at an increased risk of infection. Most warm-blooded animals can be infected but are called intermediate hosts. This means that the life cycle stops within the muscle tissues at the cyst stage. So ingestion of infected animal tissue such as undercooked meat is the number one route of contamination to humans and cats. Because water and soil can become infected with Toxoplasma oocysts from cat feces, activities such as gardening without gloves is much more risky to an expecting mother than simply owning a cat. Also, eating any undercooked meat poses more of a risk than having a furry friend in the house.
How to Prevent the Disease
Cats can be prevented from contracting the disease by not giving them raw meat, bones, entrails or unpasteurized milk. Also, outdoor cats are at a much higher risk as the hunting and eating of wild prey can cause a cat to become infected. Believe it or not, flies and cockroaches can be carriers of Toxoplasma and should not be eaten by cats. Humans can prevent infection by wearing gloves when gardening, thoroughly cooking meat, washing their hands after handling raw meant, drinking only pasteurized milk, and avoiding contact with litter boxes or washing your hands after cleaning up cat feces. Also, washing your hands before eating and after contact with a cat is recommended. In addition, litter boxes should be changed daily as the feces can contain infective oocysts or eggs. Bear in mind that humans must ingest these eggs to become infected.
So, the bottom line is that, as long as a pregnant woman takes proper preventative measures, Toxoplasma does not pose a significant risk to humans. Remember that it is rare for cats to have toxoplasmosis and even rarer for you to contract it from cats. Don’t kick Kitty out in a fit of paranoia.
Signs of Toxoplasmosis in Cats
Nonspecific signs of anorexia, lethargy, depression, fever and weight loss can occur. Other symptoms include icterus, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, muscle pain, and lameness and eye problems. The disease can come on rapidly or after reactivation of a chronic latent infection during times of immunocomprimise. The eyes, lungs and gastrointestinal systems are more commonly affected than the nervous system.
Diagnosing Toxoplasma in Cats
Your vet needs to do a thorough history, physical exam and laboratory testing to accurately diagnose the disease. Blood tests can tell you whether your cat has been exposed, but these tests often need to be repeated to determine if the infection is active or chronic. Sometimes x-rays and testing fluids from your cat are necessary. Cats only shed the infective oocysts for a period of two weeks after contracting Toxoplasma.
Treating Toxoplasma in Cats
Feline leukemia, feline aids, feline infectious peritonitis, blood parasites, steroids and chemotherapy can compromise the cat’s ability to fight off infection and makes treating the disease more difficult. In general though, most cats are treated on an outpatient basis with antibiotics that are continued two weeks beyond the resolution of clinical signs. Cats with eye problems sometimes need eye drops to resolve the symptoms. Usually, cats improve within 48 hours of treatment. Follow-up exams by your vet are necessary to determine response and to decide when the medications can be stopped.
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